Women’s Assertion and Organization

During the recent struggles in the North-East and central India, especially Chattisgarh, many tribal women have joined militant groups and their armies. They left their homes and began to take military training.

In the North-East, many young girls became part of the movement for self-determination. Several of them became victims of brutality at the hands of the armed forces, and many have laid down their lives too. As a protest against the AFSPA, Irom Chanu Sharmila fasted for 15 years and organizations of women working for peace and Associations of Mothers have come up, in which tribal women are playing leading roles. The Nupi Lan (Women’s War) was an uprising against scarcity of rice in the state which was led solely by 
women, in Manipur in the year 1939. The Meira Paibis demanding a ban on liquor or the nude protest of 40 mothers against the Assam Rifles, with the slogan ‘Indian Army, Rape Us’ have drawn attention.
The Naga Mothers Association is another important organization working towards peace and campaigning against bloodshed not only by the armed forces, but also by insurgent groups. Even during the head-hunting days, the Naga women fought bravely to usher in peace between warring villages. Women known as Pukhareilas operated as peacemakers between warring villagers and they were respected for their neutrality. They were known as ambassadors of peace. Though traditionally the women had no political power, their decisions, particularly related to women’s issues, were always respected. The women working in Chattisgarh Mines Shramik Sangh (CMSS) have been active and assertive. In Jharkhand, women’s assertion has been seen right from the time of Jani-Shikar (1610), when Oraon womenfolk dressed in male attire and warded off the attacks of the Mughals on their Fort. Today, Maoist women’s organizations are active in many areas where tribal people have their habitations.

○○ pH मान [pH value] ○○


जल का  pH मान कितना होता है7


दध का PH मान कितना होता है6.4


सिरके  का PH कितना होता है3


मानव रक्त का pH मान7.4


नीबू  के रस का pH मान2.4


NaCl का pH मान7


pH पैमाने का पता किसने लगायासारेन्सन ने


अम्लीय घोल का pH मान होता है7 से कम


उदासिन घोल का pH मान7


शराब का pH मान3.5


मानव मूत्र का pH मान4.8 - 8.4


समुद्री जल का pH मान8.1


आसू का pH मान7.4


मानव लार का pH मान6.5


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