Irom Chanu Sharmila-An Icon of Non-Violent Resistance

Irom Chanu Sharmila, popularly called Irom Sharmila, was born on 14 March, 1972 in Kongpal, Imphal in Manipur, one of the Seven States of the North East. She belongs to the Meitei Tribe and is the daughter of Irom Chanu Nanda (Father) and Irom Ongbi Sakhi (Mother). Irom is a Civil Rights activist and Political activist and is known as „the Iron lady of Manipur‟. She is also lovingly called Mengoubi (the fair one) in her state.

Irom has been on hunger strike against the draconian Armed Forces Special Powers Act 1958B since 5th November 2002 and has become the „longest hunger striker in world history‟ till date. The entire North East region has been facing State Repression, insurgency and intra-tribal warfare since a long time, and Irom grew up in this atmosphere of violence and insecurity.

The incident which impacted Irmo’s life the most was the Malom Massacre. Malom is a town in Imphal, Manipur. On 2 November, 10 civilians including a 62-year-old woman and a girl who was just 18 years of age and had been the recipient of the 1988 National Bravery Award, were shot dead in cold blood, while waiting for a bus. The Indian Paramilitary Force operating in the State, viz. The Assam Rifles, was allegedly responsible for the killing. Irom was fasting for Goddess Lakshmi on that day, a Thursday. She could not break her fast after 2ndNovember, 2000, as she demanded that the Indian Government repeal the AFSPA, which had given unbridled power to the armed forces and the paramilitary to raid, arrest, rape, torture or kill with impunity. She declared that she would not eat or drink and even look at the mirror or comb her till the Act had been repealed. On 8 November, 2000, she was arrested under the charge of trying to „commit suicide‟, under Section 309 of the Indian Penal Code, and was remanded to judicial custody for 15 days. As days passed, Irmo’s health condition deteriorated to such an extent that she had to be put on nasogastric intubation, i.e., nasal forced feeding on 21 November, while she still remained in custody.

Sharmila will not break her Vow
Irom is released and re-arrested with professional regularity every year; she is kept
free for a day-or-two and the same routine is enacted, because, according to the law, the maximum punishment under the section is 365 days of imprisonment. So far Irom Sharmila has spent 5,600 days in imprisonment, and has not even accepted a single morsel through the mouth. In all these years, she has met her mother only once, as she feels that seeing her might weaken her resolve to continue the battle.
On October 2nd, 2006, Irom was released and she went to Raj Ghat to pay respects
through a floral tribute to Mahatma Gandhi, who has been her ideal. She went for a
demonstration at Jantar Mantar in the evening. Here, hundreds of people from the
North East living in Delhi, students from Colleges and the JNU, human rights activists, media persons and women’s groups joined her in support of her struggle against AFSPA.
On 6 October, 2006, Irom was again arrested by the Delhi Police and sent to All India Institute of Medical Science, from where she wrote letters to the President of India, to the Prime Minister and also the home minister. Here she had occasion to meet Nobel Laureate and human Rights Crusader Shirin Ebadi, who promised to take the matter with the UN Human Rights Council. Sharmila’s fast on 6 October had become a case of attempt to commit suicide; hence the arrest was justified by the Government. In August 2011, Irom called upon the anti-corruption leader Anna Hazare to visit Manipur. In response two representatives from the Movement did come to Manipur and met her. In September 2011, the Communist Party of India, Marxist Leninist (KN Ramachandran) declared a 1-month long Nationwide Agitation comprising dharnas, hunger strikes, silent rallies and meetings in support of the cause taken up by Irom Sharmila. The Party also declared in its Peoples‟ Convention in Orissa that it would continue its movement against AFSPA. The State Unit of the Trinamul Congress also urged its leader Mamata Banerjee, in October 2011, to help raise the issue at the National level. Irom also made an appeal to Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh to repeal the draconian, anti-people Act.


Save Sharmila Solidarity Campaign

The Save Sharmila Solidarity Campaign was started in Delhi on 2 October 2011, at Jantar Mantar. Many non-Manipuri Organizations as well as the National Alliance of Peoples‟ Movements and other Civil Society Groups joined the dharna at Jantar Mantar. The Campaign was launched in 21 states and it was decided that the campaign would end on 10 December, International Human Rights Day. The campaign laid down four main demands:

i) initiating a dialogue with Ms. Sharmila,

ii) sending an all-party delegation for talks,

iii) sending members of the National Commission for Women to assess her condition and

iv) deputing a special team of doctors from New Delhi to examine her. On 10 December, many leading social activists sat on a day-long hunger strike and then marched from India Gate to Rashtrapati Bhavan to submit the signatures collected during the Campaign. As part of the campaign, cycle rallies were held in several states and a Caravan from Srinagar to Imphal, covering 10 States was also conducted. Various organizations supported the campaign. mainly NAPM, Asha Parivar, Mission Bhartiyam, Mahila Chetna Kendra, Yuva Koshish, Khudai Khidmatgar, Manushi, Sadbhavna Mission, We the Common People, SAMAR, Le Mashale, SIO, Asian Centre of Social Studies.
Though 50 Organisations had started the campaign, the number of support organizations increased rapidly in no time. In November, 100 women had formed a
human-chain at Ambari, Guahati District, to express solidarity to Irom. Civil Society Groups sat on a 24-hr long dharna too.

Repression -
the action of subduing someone or something by force.
Insurgency- is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents. An insurgency can be fought via counter-insurgency warfare, and may also be opposed by measures to protect the population, and by political and economic actions of various kinds aimed at undermining the insurgents' claims against the incumbent regime. The nature of insurgencies is an ambiguous concept.
Impunity -exemption from punishment or freedom from the injurious consequences of an action:
Deteriorated -become progressively worse:
Exemplary- serving as a desirable model; very good: "exemplary behaviour"
Nasogastric -reaching or supplying the stomach via the nose:
Intubation- the insertion of a tube, as into the larynx; see also CANNULATION and CATHETERIZATION. The purpose of intubation varies with the location and type of
tube inserted; generally, it is done to allow drainage, to maintain an open airway, or to administer anesthetics or oxygen.
Intubation into the stomach or intestine is done to remove gastric or intestinal contents for the relief or prevention of distention, or to obtain a specimen for analysis. Another example of intubation is when a tube is inserted into the common bile duct to allow for drainage of bile from ducts draining the liver, done after surgery on the gallbladder or the common bile duct. Endotracheal intubation can be achieved by insertion of an ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE, sometimes containing a stylet, via the mouth or nose with the aid of a laryngoscope. It is done for the purpose of assuring patency of the upper airway. TRACHEOSTOMY is a form of endotracheal intubation.

Vindicated -clear (someone) of blame or suspicion:
Cynicism-an inclination to believe that people are motivated purely by self-interest; skepticism:
Appellate- (especially of a court) concerned with or dealing with applications for decisions to be reversed.
Allurement- to attract with something desirable; entice: Promises of quick profits allure the unwary investor. To be highly, often subtly attractive: charms that still allure. The power to attract; enticement.
Ammunition -a supply or quantity of bullets and shells.

○○General Science :important Question


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किस ग्रंथि के लुप्त होने से बुढ़ापा आता है

थायमस ग्रंथि


हलोजन जो काँच पर प्रहार करती है



रासायनिक दृष्टि से ' वाटर ग्लास ' क्या है

सोडियम सिलिकेट


कपोषण में सबसे अधिक कमी किसकी होती है



' ब्लैक-होल' सिद्धांत का प्रतिपादन किसने किया था

एस चन्द्रशेखर


कोबाल्ट-60 कौन-सी किरणें उत्सर्जित करता है

गामा किरणें


परोटाॅन का भार इलेक्ट्राॅन के भार का कितना गुणा होता है

1836 गुना


एक दिन में मनुष्य लगभग कितना मूत्र का उत्सर्जन करता है

लगभग 1.5 लीटर


परकाश के तरंग सिद्धांत का प्रतिपादन किसने किया

सर न्यूटन


धवनि तीव्रता का CGS मात्रक है



कोशिका के किस भाग को ' साइट ऑफ कन्ट्रोल ' कहा जाता है



टिटनेस रोग शरीर के किस भाग को प्रभावित करता है

तत्रिका तंत्र


सवाइन फ्लू फैलाने वाला वायरस का नाम है



बर्ड फ्लू वायरस का नाम है



NTP पर किसी गैस के एक मोल का आयतन होता है

22.4 लीटर


टमाटर साॅस में कौन-सा अम्ल पाया जाता है

एसीटिक अम्ल


गोबर पर उगने वाले कवक कहलाते है



मच्छर भगाने वाली दवाओं में सक्रिय रसायन है



बराइट्स रोग किस अंग को प्रभावित करता है



मात्रकों की अंतरराष्ट्रीय पद्धति कब लागू की गयी



पौधों में वृद्धि मापने वाला यंत्र कौन-सा है



करीस्कोग्राफ का आविष्कार किसने किया

ज सी बोस


नयूट्रिनों की खोज किसने की थी



नयूट्रान की खोज किसने की थी



जीवाशम विज्ञान का जनक किसे माना जाता है

लियोनार्डो द विंची


जीव विकास को सबसे पहले किसने समझाया

लमार्क .


सटील को कठोरता प्रदान करने के लिए क्या मिलाया जाता है



कार्य का CGS मात्रक है



रक्त के जमने में किस आयन की भूमिका होती है

कल्सियम आयन


रक्त दाब को मापने वाला यंत्र है



सर्वप्रथम किस जीव में रक्त दाब मापा गया



शरीर में पित्त का निर्माण कहाँ होता है



लगरहैंस की द्वीपिका कहाँ पायी जाती है

अग्नाशय में


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