Agriculture in India Since 1961

In this post, you will study about the agriculture in India. The status of agriculture in India can be understood by the help of taking an example of a state of India like Goa.

Goa is a small State situated on West Coast of India, extent over in an area of 3,702 sq. km. The State is bordered on the east by Sahyadri Mountains and on the West with Arabian Sea. The Northern slope of Goa borders Maharashtra State while Southern zone is bordered by Karnataka State. Goa has rich wealth of biodiversity. The State of Goa was governed by Portuguese for nearly 450 years till it was liberated in 1961. 

For last 50 years of Liberation, the State has made an extraordinary development in agricultural area besides numerous other scopes of economic upliftment. The GSDP of Goa stands at Rs. 80,000 per annum. Though tourism and mining are at front position in terms of employment generation, agriculture has been providing employment support to almost 12% of the population. The Agriculture along with Forests in Goa is instrumental in keeping Goa green and cover nearly 65% of the total area of the State. In the last fifty year of liberation, the State has seen main changes in the agriculture sector. At the time of liberation, nearly 70% of the population was involved in agriculture as their full time occupation. Paddy was the main crop of the State tracked by Cashew and Coconut. The cropping design is altering and today, we have Cashew nut which is refined in nearly 55,000 ha with paddy covering about 31,000 ha. The cultivation of horticultural crops is gaining importance due to the better returns, lower risk and tolerance of these crops for part time farming.

Climate and Rainfall

You may already be aware that Goa gets rain from the South-West monsoons. The normal rainfall is 2800 mm. rainy season is spread over four months from June to September. Occasional thunder showers are experienced in May and October. Goa involvements warm and humid tropical climate. The summer temperature ranges from 24°C to 36°C. In winter, the mercury hovers between 21°C and 30°C.


The average relative humidity is 75.90%.


In Goa, the land elevation ranges from sea level to 1,022 meters. The highest point is the Wagheri Hills in Sattari taluka. The Ghat section of NH-4, rises to 650 meters MSL near Anmod.


The soils of Goa are generally lateritic (81%). They are sandy loam to silt-loam texture, well drained and very acidic (5.5 to 6 .5 pH). These soils have reasonable organic carbon and are poor in potash.

About 11% of the soils placed along the seacoast and estuaries are sandy-to-sandy learns. They comprise the Ker lands and beach fronts. The remaining 8% of the soils are alluvial in nature. The Khazans and attached areas have alluvial soil with high water tables and are subject to inundation by saline water.

Land Types

The various types of land are as follows:

1. Khazan Land: It comprises low-lying areas, often below sea level laterally the estuaries. This land is used for monsoon paddy crop followed by Rabi vegetables. In limited areas, pisciculture is also completed by regulating flow of water.

2. Ker Land: This is flat land at low elevation above sea level and having a high water table. Rabi paddy vegetables, pulses, etc. are grown in these areas.

3. Morod Land: It refers to upland or terraced field suitable for horticultural/plantation crops or single rain fed crop of rice.


It is important to note that in Goa old-fashioned foundations of irrigation were storage tanks, small change bandharas, natural springs and wells. For rabi paddy (vaigon) irrigation was frequently from storing tanks located in Salcete and Bardez. The normal practice is to nurture kharif paddy in tank bed and the water dyke is closed early in September after harvest of Kharif paddy. In Panda, Sanguem and Bicholirn small kucha “diversion” works are built on Nalas to irrigate paddy fields during Rabi. Substantial area under arecanut depends on various springs at higher altitudes.

After liberation of Goa, a number of Government “lift irrigation schemes” were appointed. Irrigation wells were also unlocked. Further by appointing of Salaulim Irrigation Project at Sanguem aid Anjunem Irrigation Project, State has added to irrigate an area of more than 10,000 ha.

Agricultural Development Programme

You must understand that the State of Goa is providing help to agriculture at all heights to provide substantial revenues to rural people. The Department of Agriculture delivers support for farmer from land homework to the degree of marketing of the produce. The Department of Agriculture with its head quarter at Tonca, Panaji implements developmental programme through Zonal Agricultural Offices located in each taluka of Goa. The Department has plant manufacture centers in their agricultural farms. Machinery facility centres at the Taluka Level and Training Centre at District Level. The Soil Testing Laboratories are positioned at district level where soil health cards are issued for major and micronutrients.

Being a progressive State, the farmers face wonderful shortage of manual labour. The requirement of machines for activities in agriculture is the developing trend. The land holding of farmers of Goa is small and nearly 80% of farmers own less than 1 ha of land. The smaller machines are desired and government offers financial assistance for such machines. The Government encourages large scale cultivation of numerous crops for which assistance for seed, pesticides, manures besides land preparation is delivered.

Goa is perhaps the only State where the farmers are guaranteed of the price for their produce. The State provides declaration of support price in case of paddy. Coconut, arecaut, oil palm, sugarcane which safeguard the farmers against any losses due to breakdown in market price to keep farming at its prime level.

The farmers are provided assistance at the taluka level which is located at Pernem, Bardez, Bicholim, sattari, Tiswadi, salcete, Ponda, Sanguem, Canacona and Quepem.

Agro Processing

It is essential to understand that processing adds value to agricultural produce. Fruit processing such as Mango, Kokum, Jamun are supportive to the sector. Agro cottage industries making Papad, Pickles, Medicine, Masala, etc. are also coming up.


The marketing of the agriculture harvest is done in the Govt. market yards, co-operative societies, private dealers, local market, etc.

Agro Tourism in Goa

Goa is well-known for tourism all over the world. It is picking up as one of the desired Agro Eco Tourism destination. Farmers having Agriculture as base with spice plantation/horticulture plantation, floriculture and nature resources like rivers, ponds, rich biodiversity, jungles with various flora and fauna, adventurous sports, healthy and peaceful environment with entertainment are offering in to this business along with Agriculture. Visitors and tourists also desire this as they have a soothing place where they can revive themselves over a weekend.

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