A Case Study of Tangkhul Migrants to Delhi

The high level of unemployment and limited job opportunities in Manipur amidst the social and political unrest are the major factors that compel migration into metropolitan cities. Migration to Delhi, despite social discrimination and other problems, shows the gravity of unemployment from Manipur in general, and the Tangkhuls in particular.


Unemployment denotes a condition of joblessness and the existence of a reserve labour time available for utilization. The unemployed are out of work full-time and are seeking/available for work. But the terms seeking/available for work are hard to define. Person may be available for work next week, or tomorrow, but not today.

The existence of educated unemployment is attributed to the too literary character of education. Educated unemployed are those persons who have attained an educational level of secondary and above and attained age of 15 years or above and are seeking or available for work.

Young people who had prolonged their studies for a longer period were more likely to have higher aspirations. Young people have become more ambitious and better qualified, while their employment opportunities have narrowed.

Moreover, Blaug, et al has mentioned that there has been a “widespread and persistent upgrading of minimum hiring standards in India.”

This suggests that the better educated must, after varying periods of unemployment during which aspirations are sealed downward, take jobs requiring lower levels of education.

Over a period of time, the young job-seekers adapt to the nature of the labour market faced by them and adjust their aspirations and work preferences. Individual’s job preference is influenced by income expectation, location of proposed employment, nature and status of the job, short-term and long-term prospects, etc.

Unemployment rate falls as the person grow older due to the increase in economic responsibility. Normally the youth who are educated can remain unemployed by depending on family income. Puttaswamaiah ascertained that educated unemployment is presumably a consequence of the general impression among the public that investment in education by an individual should yield are turn in terms of remunerative job; search of job suited to the particular type of education received; and decline in acceptance of job other than office jobs.

Migrant, according to the Census of India, is a person if the place of birth (POB) or place of Notes last residence (POLR) is different from the place of enumeration. A person is considered as a migrant by POB if the place in which the person is enumerated during the census is other than the person’s POB. And a person is considered as migrant by POLR, if the place in which the person is enumerated during the census is other than the person’s place of immediate last residence. Migrants defined on the basis of POB or POLR are called the lifetime migrants because the time of their move is not known.

Migration is to “achieve maximum individual satisfaction through obtaining better employment or wage or security or environment.”

Meanwhile, numerous studies in Britain have found that the propensity to migrate increases with rising educational qualification.

Source: http://www.academia.edu/4325556/Unemployment_Job_Aspiration_and_Migration_A_Case_Study_of_Tangkhul_Migrants_to_Delhi

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