Principles Of Planning

Since planning is a function of management, it must be based on certain principles to serve as guidelines for undertaking the function in right earnest. We may outline the principles of planning as below.


1)     Principle of top management interest : The chief executive of the organisation must show genuine interest in planning, submit himself to the discipline of planning and must inspire his team to do the same.


2)     Principle of long-range view :  Every manager must plan decisions after a full analysis and understanding of their long-term future effects, and after considering all the available facts objectively.


3)     Principle of contribution to objectives : Planning should be purposeful. It should directly contribute to the achievement of organisational objectives or desired ends.


4)     Principle of primacy of planning : As stated earlier, planning holds the prime position in the process of management. It is logically regarded as the first function of managers from which all other functions flow.


5)     Principle of flexibility : The principle suggests that flexibility in planning helps the organisation to cope with rapid and unforeseen changes in the external events. This can be achieved without abandoning the pre-determined plans or without inviting adverse consequences even if drastic.


6)     Principle of navigational change : This principle is related to the principle of flexibility. It indicates that a regular process of monitoring the course of external events is to be combined with a review and revision of plans. This should be done in order to achieve desired goals just as a navigator negotiates his ship’s way by making changes in his route in response to behaviour of the water mass.


7)     Principle of commitment : This principle helps in the determination of the planning period. Planning should cover a period of time necessary to fulfil the commitments involved in a decision. For example, if a student makes a decision to join a three years B.Com. Course, his planning period is three years.


8)     Principle of the limiting factor : A limiting factor is one which stands in the way of achieving the desired objective. Managers should pay due attention to tackle those limiting factors which hinder the smooth progress in achievement of objectives.

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