Elements in the Communication Process

The process of communication may be better understood if we take into account the basic elements in the communication process.

Let us now discuss them one by one.


1)    Communicator : The communicator plays an important role in the process of communication as the message originates from him. Communicators may include: managers, subordinates, clients, customers, as well as outside parties.


2)    Encoding : Encoding the matter to be communicated is the second element. It refers to preparing the subject of communication (idea, fact, information, etc.) in a suitable language.


3)    Message : The encoded message needs to be transmitted by appropriate means. It may be in verbal or written form depending on the purpose in view.


4)    Medium :The medium of communication carries the message from the communicator to the receiver. Face-to-face verbal communication, use of telephone, intercom facilities, issue of memorandum, notice, circulars, statements, telegraph, telex, etc. are the various means available as media of communication. Besides, non-verbal media like signals, gestures, etc. may also be used. The choice of medium is an important aspect of communication, since proper medium also determines its effectiveness.


5)    Decoding : Decoding refers to the conversion of the message by the receiver into meaningful terms so as to make it understandable. This is another important element of communication for the receiver’s response and depends upon his understanding of the content and purpose of the message.


6)    Receiver : The receiver of the message has an equally vital role to play as the communicator. Indeed, communication to be effective must be receiver-oriented. The ability of the receiver for decoding and understanding the message contribute to a positive response from the receiver.


7)    Feedback: The actual response of the receiver to the message communicated to him is known as ‘feedback’. This is an important element of the communication process. It reduces the possibility of a difference between the intention of the communicator and the interpretation of the message by the receiver. Two-way communication requires feedback to the initial message sent and enables the sender to check whether the message received has been properly understood by the receiver.

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